An equine is only allowed one passport issued by a UK-based passport issuing organisation (PIO), but there are several reasons why it might have acquired more, such as:
The equine was bought and sold previously without any documents so the new owner applied for a passport with a new PIO without realising that one already existed. This used to happen frequently before the Central Equine Database (CED) was established because there used to be no way to check. Now, owners can check if an equine already has a passport by using the National ChipChecker
The owner originally registered the equine with an identification-only (ID-only) PIO without realising that the equine might be eligible for a studbook/pedigree passport. It may then have become apparent that the equine had a pedigree or an owner wanted to enter competition where the pedigree of the horse was relevant, or breed a foal. Rather than cancel the ID-only passport or have the ID-only passport "Overstamped" by a studbook PIO as required by law, the owner applied for a new studbook passport
The equine was imported on a passport Issued by an EU PIO. Rather than identify the EU passport with a UK PIO, as legally required if the equine is in the country for 30 days or more, the owner applied for a new passport
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